Baking & Snack - November 2021 - 48

GUMS & TEXTURE
Dr. Regan explained. By maintaining viscosity, batters
become more stable, losing fewer gas bubbles. If a
batter is holding particulates, these also have an easier
time remaining suspended when the batter is stabilized.
Another benefit to a more stable batter viscosity is improved
flow properties, or batter rheology. This allows
batters to be pumped without losing viscosity.
When it comes to dough, hydrocolloids' ability to stabilize
the formulation can improve dough machineability
through sheeting, cutting, depositing and shaping.
" Gums are used to create workable, elastic doughs
that reduce stickiness and tearing during processing, "
said Olivia Benton, food technologist, food systems,
Ingredion Inc. " Once baked, these products will retain
moisture and have an extended shelf life, whether stored
in ambient or frozen conditions, due to the prevention
of moisture migration. "
Stabilizing the aqua system is what prevents moisture
Gums can provide
oven stability for
fruit fillings.
Cargill
migration. Hydrocolloids can reduce the amount of free
water available in the formulation and reduce moisture
loss during storage, which would result in staling and
texture issues.
Aqua system stability also makes these ingredients
critical to the texture of fillings. Pectin is a commonly
used gum for bakery fillings and glazes as it improves
their oven stability and inhibits syneresis, or weeping.
Another application that benefits from the stabilizing
force of gums and hydrocolloids are value-added breads.
When adding a fiber or protein to a loaf of bread, the
dough becomes much heavier and could even collapse.
" Fiber and plant protein can be really heavy in a product
that is supposed to be light, " Ms. Mills explained.
" Gums and hydrocolloids can help the bread stand up
and give it more leeway to add in some of those ingredients
before the bread will collapse. Adding a hydrocolloid
or gum can help you bridge that gap between a
normal bread to a bread where you're really trying to
have added value and bring them to a place to achieve
consumer acceptability. "
Finding the sweet spot
Like all ingredients bringing some functionality to the
formulation, there are challenges as well. And in baking,
there's less room for error.
" In other applications we work in, there can be some
leeway when adding hydrocolloids and gums, but there
is not a lot of leeway in the baking world, " Ms. Mills said.
The most critical piece to ensuring hydrocolloids and
gums are optimized is hydration. Without hydration,
these ingredients simply don't function.
" Formula ingredients such as gluten and other proteins;
salt; sugar; dry powders like egg, milk, whey and
soy; and fiber compete for the water added into the formulation
and may slow or inhibit hydration of the hydrocolloids, "
Dr. Regan explained.
Because of this, it's critical that bakers ensure there
is enough water available in the formulation to hydrate
gums and hydrocolloids in addition to any other thirsty
ingredients.
" Generally speaking, gums should be well combined
with the other dry ingredients in the formula before
adding the wet ingredients, as this will ensure the gums
hydrate efficiently during mixing and resting steps, " Ms.
Benton said.
Hydration isn't the only component in gum functionality.
Temperature, pH, shear and even other ingredients
in the mixing bowl can have an impact on effectiveness.
" The functional properties of some hydrocolloids are
affected by ions contributed by ingredients like the sodium,
potassium and chloride in salt and the calcium
in milk, which can have a positive or negative effect on
their functionality, " Dr. Regan said.
Hydration helps gums and hydrocolloids dissolve
into the batter or dough, but temperature, particle size
and shear forces also play important parts in solubility.
Hydrocolloids with smaller particle sizes, for example,
will solubilize more quickly than larger or aggregated
particles, Dr. Regan pointed out.
48 Baking & Snack November 2021 / www.bakingbusiness.com
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Baking & Snack - November 2021

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Baking & Snack - November 2021

Baking & Snack - November 2021 - Intro
Baking & Snack - November 2021 - 1
Baking & Snack - November 2021 - 2
Baking & Snack - November 2021 - 3
Baking & Snack - November 2021 - 4
Baking & Snack - November 2021 - 5
Baking & Snack - November 2021 - 6
Baking & Snack - November 2021 - 7
Baking & Snack - November 2021 - 8
Baking & Snack - November 2021 - 9
Baking & Snack - November 2021 - 10
Baking & Snack - November 2021 - 11
Baking & Snack - November 2021 - 12
Baking & Snack - November 2021 - 13
Baking & Snack - November 2021 - 14
Baking & Snack - November 2021 - 15
Baking & Snack - November 2021 - 16
Baking & Snack - November 2021 - 17
Baking & Snack - November 2021 - 18
Baking & Snack - November 2021 - 19
Baking & Snack - November 2021 - 20
Baking & Snack - November 2021 - 21
Baking & Snack - November 2021 - 22
Baking & Snack - November 2021 - 23
Baking & Snack - November 2021 - 24
Baking & Snack - November 2021 - 25
Baking & Snack - November 2021 - 26
Baking & Snack - November 2021 - 27
Baking & Snack - November 2021 - 28
Baking & Snack - November 2021 - 29
Baking & Snack - November 2021 - 30
Baking & Snack - November 2021 - 31
Baking & Snack - November 2021 - 32
Baking & Snack - November 2021 - 33
Baking & Snack - November 2021 - 34
Baking & Snack - November 2021 - 35
Baking & Snack - November 2021 - 36
Baking & Snack - November 2021 - 37
Baking & Snack - November 2021 - 38
Baking & Snack - November 2021 - 39
Baking & Snack - November 2021 - 40
Baking & Snack - November 2021 - 41
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Baking & Snack - November 2021 - 43
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