Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 98

featured technical expert Q&A
Luc Casavant
Lallemand Baking
Luc Casavant has dedicated more than 40 years to the baking industry,
developing ingredient solutions that will shape the industry
for many years to come.
His baking career began at his local town bakery, where he
worked for five years in various hands-on roles ranging from
baker to production supervisor. Casavant then left the bakery to
attend college.
" When I started my higher education studies, I aimed for a formation
that would be relevant to a position in the baking industry,
allowing me to leverage my previous work experience in this
field, " he said.
Casavant attended Vieux-Montréal College in Montréal, where
he studied applied science. He earned a bachelor's degree in biochemistry
and a master's degree in applied enzymology at the
University of Quebec at Montréal.
" By far, my decision to return to school full-time between the
ages of 27 and 34 has significantly shaped my current position
and achievements, " he reflected.
After graduating, Casavant
joined Lallemand Baking as a
test baker. Over his 28 years at
the company, Casavant said his
passion and dedication allowed him
to progress through the ranks, including
roles as lab manager, senior baking
technologist and his current position as director
of baking applications.
Casavant's current work is focused on researching and developing
solutions for baked good applications. Recently, he developed
an enzymatic solution, Essential FSA 2013, that stabilizes
yeast fermentation in low and no-sugar-added doughs like keto
bread and can reduce overall product sugar content while maintaining
sweetness.
Here, Casavant details the numerous ways enzymes, including
Essential FSA 2013, can improve the quality and consumer appeal
of baked products.
What benefits do enzymes provide to baked goods?
Enzymes have a long history of providing key benefits in the baking
industry. Think about diastatic malt flour or enzyme-active soy
or pea flour, which have been used in baked goods for years. Three
decades ago, Lallemand recognized the immense potential of enzymes
for the baking industry. Today, enzymes play a crucial role
by enhancing dough strength, providing emulsifying properties,
exerting oxidative effects and contributing to crumb softening. In
my opinion, enzymes represent the future of the food industry and
will continue to shape the way we create and enjoy baked goods.
Why may bakers look to reduce sugar content?
The World Health Organization recommends the importance of
reducing free sugar to less than 10% of total energy intake. Both
Canada and the United States have taken significant steps to address
sugar consumption through revised nutrition labeling.
In Canada, this includes posting the percent daily value for
added sugar, mandatory front-of-pack labeling and ingredient
list grouping. In the United States, added sugar must be declared.
These initiatives aim to raise awareness for consumers to make informed
choices about their sugar intake.
What are the challenges of reducing sugar in low/no
sugar doughs like keto bread?
In low-carb bread or keto bread formulations, yeast is often deprived
of readily fermentable sugars. This occurs especially when
98 Baking & Snack May 2024 / www.bakingbusiness.com
ingredients like calcium propionate or fermented wheat are added
to the formula. As a result, the yeast becomes maltose negative,
meaning it is incapable of fermenting the available maltose - a
sugar it typically relies on for fermentation. Starch-modifying enzymes
can be considered to address this challenge to convert damaged
starch (and sometimes even resistant starch) into fermentable
sugars. These enzymes help the dough proof to its normal height
while reducing the residual carbohydrate content.
How does Essential FSA 2013 help stabilize yeast
fermentation and reduce sugar content in these breads?
This enzyme-based solution stabilizes yeast fermentation in low
sugar (1% to 2%) or no sugar added bread that contains calcium
propionate. All yeast strains very slowly become maltose adaptive
or completely maltose negative, meaning that they cannot ferment
the flour maltose (5% to 6% maltose is usually available when no
sugar is added) in the presence of calcium propionate or fermented
wheat.
These conditions result in several challenges. The yeast will use
preferably the 1% to 2% available gluco-fructosans (monosaccharides
from damaged starch) of the flour, but this is not enough to
proof to normal desired height or volume. The dough will rise to
a certain height and will continue very slowly or stop proofing
because of substrate limitation (the yeast cannot ferment maltose).
It becomes difficult to proof to desired height even by adding
more yeast and sometimes despite the addition of 1% to 2%
Lallemand Baking
http://www.bakingbusiness.com

Baking & Snack - May 2024

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Baking & Snack - May 2024

Baking & Snack - May 2024 - Intro
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 1
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 2
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 3
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 4
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 5
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 6
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 7
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 8
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 9
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 10
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 11
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 12
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 13
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 14
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 15
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 16
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 17
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 18
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 19
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 20
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 21
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 22
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 23
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 24
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 25
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 26
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 27
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 28
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 29
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 30
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 31
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 32
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 33
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 34
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 35
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 36
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 37
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 38
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 39
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 40
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 41
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 42
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 43
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 44
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 45
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 46
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 47
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 48
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 49
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 50
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 51
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 52
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 53
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 54
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 55
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 56
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 57
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 58
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 59
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 60
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 61
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 62
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 63
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 64
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 65
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 66
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 67
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 68
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 69
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 70
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 71
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 72
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 73
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 74
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 75
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 76
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 77
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 78
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 79
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 80
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 81
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 82
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 83
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 84
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 85
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 86
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 87
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 88
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 89
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 90
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 91
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 92
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 93
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 94
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 95
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 96
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 97
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 98
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 99
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 100
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 101
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 102
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 103
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 104
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 105
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 106
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 107
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 108
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 109
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 110
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 111
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 112
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 113
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 114
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 115
Baking & Snack - May 2024 - 116
https://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/baking-snack-may-2024
https://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/baking-snack-april-2024
https://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/baking-snack-march-2024
https://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/baking-snack-february-2024
https://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/baking-snack-december-2023
https://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/baking-snack-november-2023
https://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/baking-snack-october-2023
https://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/baking-snack-september-2023
https://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/baking-snack-august-2023
https://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/baking-snack-july-2023
https://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/baking-snack-june-2023
https://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/baking-snack-may-2023
https://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/baking-snack-april-2023
https://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/baking-snack-march-2023
https://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/baking-snack-february-2023
https://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/baking-snack-december-2022
https://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/baking-snack-november-2022
https://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/baking-snack-october-2022
https://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/baking-snack-september-2022
https://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/baking-snack-august-2022
https://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/baking-snack-july-2022
https://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/-baking-snack-june-2022
https://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/baking-snack-may-2022
https://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/baking-snack-april-2022
https://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/baking-snack-march-2022
https://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/baking-snack-january-2022
https://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/baking-snack-december-2021
https://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/baking-snack-november-2021
https://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/baking-snack-october-2021
https://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/baking-snack-september-2021
https://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/baking-snack-august-2021
https://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/baking-snack-july-2021
https://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/baking-snack-june-2021
https://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/baking-snack-may-2021
https://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/baking-snack-april-2021
https://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/baking-snack-march-2021
https://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/baking-snack-february-2021
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2020_12_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2020_11_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2020_10_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2020_09_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2020_08_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2020_07_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2020_06_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2020_05_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2020_04_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2020_03_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2020_02_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2019_12_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2019_11_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2019_10_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2019_09_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2019_08_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2019_07_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2019_06_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2019_05_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2019_04_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2019_03_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2019_02_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2018_12_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2018_11_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2018_10_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2018_09_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2018_08_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2018_07_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2018_06_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2018_05_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2018_04_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2018_03_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2018_02_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2017_12_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2017_11_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2017_10_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2017_09_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2017_08_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2017_07_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2017_06_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2017_05_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2017_04_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2017_03_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2017_02_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2016_12_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2016_11_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2016_10_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2016_09_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2016_08_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2016_07_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2016_06_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2016_05_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2016_04_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2016_03_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2016_02_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2015_12_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2015_11_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2015_10_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2015_09_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2015_08_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2015_07_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2015_06_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2015_05_02
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2015_04_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2015_03_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2015_02_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2014_12_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2014_11_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2014_10_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2014_09_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2014_08_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2014_07_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2014_06_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2014_05_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2014_04_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2014_03_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2014_02_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2013_12_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2013_11_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2013_10_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2013_09_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2013_08_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2013_07_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2013_06_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2013_05_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2013_04_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2013_03_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2013_02_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2012_12_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2012_11_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2012_10_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2012_09_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2012_08_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2012_07_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2012_06_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2012_05_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2012_04_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2012_03_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2012_02_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2011_12_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2011_11_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2011_10_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2011_09_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2011_08_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2011_07_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2011_06_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2011_05_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2011_04_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2011_03_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2011_02_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2010_12_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2010_11_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2010_10_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2010_09_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2010_08_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2010_07_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2010_06_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2010_05_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2010_04_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2010_03_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2010_02_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2009_12_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2009_11_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2009_10_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2009_09_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2009_08_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2009_07_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2009_06_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2009_05_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2009_04_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2009_03_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2009_02_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2009_01_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2008_12_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2008_11_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2008_10_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2008_09_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2008_08_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2008_07_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2008_06_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2008_05_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2008_04_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2008_03_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2008_02_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2007_12_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2007_11_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2007_10_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2007_09_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2007_08_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2007_07_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2007_06_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2007_05_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2007_04_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2007_02_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2006_12_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2006_11_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2006_10_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2006_09_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2006_08_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2006_07_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2006_06_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2006_05_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2006_04_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2006_03_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2006_02_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2005_12_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2005_11_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2005_10_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2005_09_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2005_08_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2005_07_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2005_06_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2005_05_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2005_04_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2005_03_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2005_02_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2004_12_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2004_11_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2004_10_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2004_09_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2004_08_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2004_07_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2004_06_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2004_05_01
https://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2004_04_01
https://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2004_03_01
https://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2004_02_01
https://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2003_12_01
https://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2003_11_01
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com