Baking & Snack - May 2023 - 46

CHEMICAL LEAVENING
Alternative grains
and proteins
can impact the
effectiveness of
chemical leaveners.
┬ęPraewphan-stock.adobe.com
continue to flourish in popularity with consumers.
" Leavening must be adjusted when using alternative
flours, " Ms. Livvix explained. " Often these flours contain
higher levels of protein that can cause a coarse, low volume
end product. An increased amount of protein makes it
more difficult for the carbon dioxide air bubbles to expand. "
The flours, starches and proteins found in traditional
baked goods are the product's structure setters, Mr. Bright
noted, and maintaining this structure is more difficult with
alternative ingredients.
" When we start using different
flours and different
starch and different proteins, they're not all equal when it
comes to temperatures they gelatinize, or what temperatures
the protein starts to gel or set, " he explained. " Let's say
we're switching out egg albumin for vital wheat gluten. The
setting temperature or the gelling temperature for an egg
albumin is different than vital wheat gluten. So one will set
the cake, and the other one, the cake will just collapse. "
Leavening systems must be hydrated and solubilized to
enable the chemical reaction, but alternative ingredients
often absorb more water than traditional wheat flours, Ms.
Thomas said, resulting in suboptimal batter consistency
and structure. This requires adjustments to water levels to
maintain a properly hydrated leavening system.
" If the pH of the alternative flour and protein is acidic,
these may react more quickly with the bicarbonate, " she
said. " This premature reaction could alter the desired rate
of CO2
release and ultimately the final baked volume. "
To combat this, the rate of reaction of the leavening
agents must be adapted. Ms. Yin said that the proper ratio
of slow-and fast-reaction acids may minimize the effect of
alternative proteins on product texture.
With an understanding of the leavening agents at
their disposal, as well as the specific needs of the products
they're making, producers can ensure their baked
goods rise and shine.
46 Baking & Snack May 2023 / www.bakingbusiness.com
*
Solving the sodium reduction challenge
Sodium consumption is a top concern
for health agencies and many consumers.
According to the US Food and Drug
Administration (FDA), Americans consume
3,400 mg of sodium daily, nearly 50% more
than the federally recommended 2,300 mg.
In 2021, the FDA introduced voluntary sodium
reduction guidelines with the goal of reducing
average daily intake to 3,000 mg over
the next 2.5 years. This included establishing
upper bounds on the maximum amount of
sodium across 160 food categories.
" Regardless of whether you believe sodium
is arch nemesis No. 1, the FDA does, and
when April 2024 comes round, the agency
is going to expect that no single product
exceeds those upper bounds, " said Martin
Hahn, SNAC International general counsel,
at SNAXPO 2023 earlier this year. " You may
have a few products where you're going to
have to exceed the upper bounds, and that's
fine, but then you should really be pivoting
in terms of how you should inform your consumer,
or should you inform the consumer,
that the product has a higher sodium level
than what the agency is recommending. "
For baking and snack manufacturers, adjusting
the chemical leavening system is one
way to reduce sodium and hit these targets.
This is commonly done by replacing sodium
bicarbonate with potassium bicarbonate and
sodium phosphates with calcium alternatives.
" Potassium bicarbonate can be used as a
sodium-free source of carbon dioxide gas,
along with sodium-free leavening acids for a
leavening system that contributes no sodium
to the product formula, " said Nita Livvix, R&D
manager, B&G Foods.
However, adjustments are needed when
reducing sodium in baked goods. Because
potassium carbonate provides less carbon
dioxide than sodium carbonate, more is required
to provide the necessary product rise.
Potassium- and calcium-based leaveners may
also introduce unwanted bitterness.
" Often, a combination of both potassium
bicarbonate and sodium bicarbonate is used
[to avoid bitterness], along with sodium-free
or low-sodium leavening acids to provide
a reduced-sodium leavening system with a
lower risk of flavor issues, " Ms. Livvix said.
http://www.bakingbusiness.com

Baking & Snack - May 2023

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Baking & Snack - May 2023

Baking & Snack - May 2023 - Intro
Baking & Snack - May 2023 - 1
Baking & Snack - May 2023 - 2
Baking & Snack - May 2023 - 3
Baking & Snack - May 2023 - 4
Baking & Snack - May 2023 - 5
Baking & Snack - May 2023 - 6
Baking & Snack - May 2023 - 7
Baking & Snack - May 2023 - 8
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Baking & Snack - May 2023 - 11
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Baking & Snack - May 2023 - 20
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