Baking & Snack - July 2024 - 50

FORTIFICATION & ENRICHMENT
do so can prevent these nutrients from
being absorbed by the body or cause
them to react with the formulation
and negatively impact product quality.
" A primary
concern
for bakers
when adding vitamins is stability
during mixing, proofing and baking,
as some vitamins are sensitive to
heat and moisture, " Machado said.
" Adjustments in formulation may be
necessary to ensure even distribution
and stability of the added nutrients. "
Vitamin D, for example, is heat and
light sensitive, Hodges said, and can
lose its effectiveness if not managed
properly.
Iron and zinc may also not be absorbed
when phytates in whole grains
are present, Machado said.
" Therefore, understanding ingredient
interactions and storage conditions
is vital, " he said.
Each added nutrient may require
Each nutrient bakers
add may require
adjustments to bake
time and temperature
to ensure retention in
the final product.
©fahrwasser-stock.adobe.com
" These applications tend to hide any off-notes or textures
that may come from certain vitamins and minerals, "
he explained. " Muffins and cookies that typically
already have inclusions (think chocolate chips or blueberries)
also help mask some of these off-notes. The
same goes for bakery items that normally have strong
flavors, such as a garlic flatbread or focaccia with sundried
tomatoes. "
On the other hand, simpler products like a fouringredient
white bread likely won't hide these off-notes
and textures, Hodges said, and therefore would be a more
difficult candidate for vitamin fortification.
In addition to maintaining taste and texture,
Wilkinson emphasized the importance of adding vitamins
and minerals consumers are comfortable accepting
in their baked goods.
" Replacement of part of the sodium level in chemically
leavened products with a combination of calcium,
magnesium and/or potassium salts to lower the sodiumpotassium
ratio is an example, " she said.
Fortification is typically easier in products that are
exposed to lower temperatures for a shorter period of
time, such as nutritional bars, she added.
" Even so, there can be solutions for traditional baked
products as well, " Wilkinson said.
Ensuring efficacy
Producers fortifying their baked goods with vitamins
and minerals must ensure they maintain their integrity
throughout formulation and product shelf life. Failure to
50 Baking & Snack July 2024 / www.bakingbusiness.com
bakers to adjust bake times and temperatures to ensure
their retention in the final product, said Becky Regan,
principal scientist, IFF.
" Minerals tend to be more heat stable, and therefore,
are likely to survive the baking process, whereas the heat
stability of vitamins is more variable, with fat soluble
vitamins like vitamins A and E being more stable, " she
said. " Water-soluble vitamins such as Vitamin C and B
are also temperature sensitive. "
IF INCORPORATED
IMPROPERLY, VITAMINS
AND MINERALS CAN
DIMINISH PRODUCT TASTE
AND TEXTURE, OR REMAIN
UNABSORBED BY THE BODY.
If vitamins and minerals cannot be added straight to a
formulation without affecting absorption, flavor or texture,
bakers may need to encapsulate them to separate
these nutrients from the rest of the product environment,
said Jenn Adams, director of ingredient technology
& applications, IFPC.
" The presence of other dietary components, such as
fibers and fats, also should be considered, because they
can influence nutrient absorption, " she said. " Enhancers
http://www.bakingbusiness.com

Baking & Snack - July 2024

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Baking & Snack - July 2024

Baking & Snack - July 2024 - Intro
Baking & Snack - July 2024 - 1
Baking & Snack - July 2024 - 2
Baking & Snack - July 2024 - 3
Baking & Snack - July 2024 - 4
Baking & Snack - July 2024 - 5
Baking & Snack - July 2024 - 6
Baking & Snack - July 2024 - 7
Baking & Snack - July 2024 - 8
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