Baking & Snack - July 2021 - 50

COLORS
Anthocyanin-rich
colors are sensitive
to pH and may
require adjustments
to cooking time and
temperature.
Healthy Food Ingredients
bread or tortilla, the pH might be 4.5, giving you a bright
pink or purple, while a higher pH would create a more
blue-ish purple. "
This is why understanding the pH sensitivity of the color
is so important as well as the pH of the formulations. For
example, chemical leavening agents can increase the pH of
a dough when they are present, and that impact on color
can be dramatic.
" Chemical leavening agents use an acid-base reaction
during baking, which creates carbon dioxide gas to aerate
and lighten doughs and batters, " said AnnMarie Kraszewski,
application scientist, Oterra. " As a result, they increase the
pH of the dough and may cause anthocyanins from fruit
and vegetable juices to shift shade from red to blue. "
Heat can also have a detrimental effect on a color, which is
an issue for bakery and snack products that may endure high
temperatures in an oven, fryer or extruder. But again, some
colors handle heat just fine, and bakers can push the limits
when creating the most statement-making bakery items.
" Some color hues are really optimal for high-heat bakery
applications like yellow, brown, oranges and pinks, " Ms. Lee
said. " But sometimes people want really saturated color like
rainbow bagels or intense black or red. "
Bakers have a few options when working with more
heat-sensitive colors or when they are trying to get extremely
saturated color. They can switch to a color that has
been bred at the source to be more heat resistant.
Oterra, for example, developed its Hansen sweet potato
to be less sensitive to heat and pH changes, providing formulators
with an alternative to beet-sourced colors, which
typically are sensitive to changes.
Bakers can also adjust their processing by baking for longer
at lower temperature.
" Bakers using our anthocyanin-rich Suntava Purple Corn
Extract Powder, Flour or Meal have found that slight adjustments
to the cook time and temperature can help them
achieve their desired color, " said Terry Howell, Suntava
Purple Corn ingredient expert for Healthy Food Ingredients.
50 Baking & Snack July 2021 / www.bakingbusiness.com
When working with a high-saturation product and the
process can't be changed, formulators can use a higher dosage
of color. That will require, however, formulation changes
as adding more color is never just adding more color
when it comes to botanically sourced ingredients.
Shades of formulating
These food additives are sourced from botanicals, which
means they bring to a formulation not only their own pH
but also sugars, moisture and flavors, which can all have an
impact on the ingredient system. Just as these colors can
have an impact on the whole formulation, other ingredients
can also impact color.
" Consider including the natural colors in the initial regulatory
review and prototype development process, " Ms.
Frecker said. " Optimizing the baked product's pH, leavening
system, baking time and temperature, and flavor from
the start will help to improve the probability of launching a
successful product. "
Acid, sugars and moisture from the colors could all have
an impact on the finished baked good and require adjustments
either in the formulation or the process to bake out
added moisture. For example, the leavening system may
need to be rebalanced to accommodate any extra acid from
the color ingredient, Ms. Frecker explained. This will optimize
crumb texture, but bakers also might need to reevaluate
the leavening system based on the dosage of color.
" Correcting for added moisture contributed from a liquid
color will also ensure the formulation performs well, "
Ms. Kraszewski added.
Any extra moisture will need to be baked out or other
liquids will need to be adjusted to prevent absorption or
shelf-life issues down the line.
The various fruits and vegetables lending their colors to
baked goods also come with a lot of sugar and starch, both
of which provide functionality in baked goods. ADM uses
its proprietary technology to extract sugar and starches before
concentrating the color pigment without these extra
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Baking & Snack - July 2021

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Baking & Snack - July 2021

Baking & Snack - July 2021 - Intro
Baking & Snack - July 2021 - 1
Baking & Snack - July 2021 - 2
Baking & Snack - July 2021 - 3
Baking & Snack - July 2021 - 4
Baking & Snack - July 2021 - 5
Baking & Snack - July 2021 - 6
Baking & Snack - July 2021 - 7
Baking & Snack - July 2021 - 8
Baking & Snack - July 2021 - 9
Baking & Snack - July 2021 - 10
Baking & Snack - July 2021 - 11
Baking & Snack - July 2021 - 12
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Baking & Snack - July 2021 - 16
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Baking & Snack - July 2021 - 18
Baking & Snack - July 2021 - 19
Baking & Snack - July 2021 - 20
Baking & Snack - July 2021 - 21
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Baking & Snack - July 2021 - 27
Baking & Snack - July 2021 - 28
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Baking & Snack - July 2021 - 36
Baking & Snack - July 2021 - 37
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Baking & Snack - July 2021 - 49
Baking & Snack - July 2021 - 50
Baking & Snack - July 2021 - 51
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