Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 57

cates some sprouting, with less
than 200 suggestive of severe
wheat damage.
The two main causes of low FN
are preharvest sprouting, which happens
through the initiation of germination by cool,
best identifier for finished product quality and to evaluate
flours for performance needs.
In addition to the variations among wheat crops,
there are other quality measurements critical to product
success. Falling number (FN), for example, is a wheat
quality test that measures alpha amylase activity in flour.
Alpha amylase is an enzyme found in sprout-damaged
wheat. The FN is the time in seconds for a stirrer to fall
through a hot slurry of ground wheat. The lower the
number, the higher the enzyme activity, which means
the more starch that has been converted into sugar.
Starch supports structure in many baked foods. Starch
degradation results in an inferior product.
" For bread quality, a low FN flour results in sticky
dough, darker colors, coarser crumb, and a sticky and
gummy bread texture, " said Edward Usset, grain marketing
economist, Center for Farm Financial Management,
University of Minnesota. " For pasta and noodles made
with low FN flour, the resulting product is fragile, soft
and mushy. "
The FN can be influenced by starch structure, starch
degradation, other non-starch polysaccharides and protein.
The US Department of Agriculture Wheat Quality
Lab states that an FN greater than 300 is indicative of no
sprout damage. A measure between 200 and 300 indirainy
conditions after the wheat turns from green to
gold, and late-maturity alpha amylase, which is the result
of large temperature increases or decreases during
grain maturation.
Anything but simple
Wheat is a complex grain. It's no wonder that flour is a
fickle ingredient. Bakers need to be able to have the ability
to make slight adjustments to the dough absorption
and/or mix time at the bowl.
The best way for bakeries to manage natural variations
in flour is to have a skilled operator at the mixer
who knows how to react in real time, making slight adjustments
that ensure consistency. Automation and robotics
cannot replace an experienced baker.
" Even the particular sound of a mixer alerts them that
something unexpected is happening with the dough, " Mr.
Reasoner said. " It might mean adding water or adjusting
mix time. It's important to have someone working the
mixer who knows how to feel the dough and recognize
whether or not those changes worked or were needed. "
Mr. Kovacic added, " It's also important for bakers to
know what treatments, if any, have been added to their
flour, and what the function and benefit of each is. "
The type and amount of treatment used by the flour mill
Seeds and whole grains
can impact how flour
performs in a dough
formulation.
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Baking & Snack - August 2021

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Baking & Snack - August 2021

Baking & Snack - August 2021 - Intro
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 1
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 2
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - vdg -1
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - vdg -2
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 3
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 4
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 5
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 6
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 7
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 8
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 9
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 10
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 11
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 12
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 13
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 14
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 15
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 16
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 17
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 18
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 19
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 20
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 21
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 22
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 23
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 24
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 25
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 26
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 27
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 28
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 29
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 30
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 31
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 32
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 33
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 34
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 35
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 36
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 37
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 38
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 39
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 40
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 41
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 42
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 43
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Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 45
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 46
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Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 48
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 49
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 50
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 51
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 52
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 53
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 54
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 55
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 56
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 57
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 58
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 59
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 60
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 61
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 62
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 63
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 64
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 65
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 66
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 67
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 68
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 69
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 70
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 71
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 72
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 73
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 74
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 75
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 76
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 77
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 78
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 79
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 80
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 81
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 82
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 83
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 84
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 85
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Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 115
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 116
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