Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 54

FLOUR
GLUTEN IS AN ELASTIC
SUBSTANCE THAT FORMS
WHEN TWO PROTEINS -
GLUTENIN AND GLIADIN -
ARE MIXED WITH MOISTURE.
The protein content of
different varieties of
wheat impact how the
flour will perform in a
baked good.
©Iakov Kalinin - stock.adobe.com
properties of the flour and doughs/batters including water
absorption, cohesiveness, dough strength, texture,
loaf volume and crumb grain. "
Gluten is an elastic substance that forms when
two proteins - glutenin and gliadin - are mixed
with moisture. These two proteins bind water and connect
and cross-connect to form elastic strands of gluten.
These proteins are found in all forms of wheat, including
durum, semolina and spelt, as well as other
grains, such as rye, oats and barley.
Gluten development is not as important in some
baked foods. Therefore, lower protein flours may be
used in such applications.
Protein content can impact functional properties of
flour when made into dough or batter. Affected properties
include water absorption, cohesiveness, dough
strength, texture, loaf volume and crumb. But it's not
just protein content that matters; it's also the levels and
distribution of individual protein fractions, mainly gliadin
and glutenin, in the wheat, as well as growing conditions
and milling method and treatments.
" Achieving quality and consistent flour starts long before
the wheat enters the mill, " Mr. McLean explained.
" At Grain Craft, we work closely with growers to promote
Grain Craft Preferred Varities. These are wheat
varieties that have been thoroughly tested and selected
based on key milling and baking characteristics.
" Wheat quality is largely impacted by two factors: the
environment and the genotype, or variety. Grain Craft
Preferred Varieties allow us to reduce variability in flour
performance even during years where there may be significant
environmental challenges. "
The percent of protein content is dependent on the
type of wheat milled. It is also the foundation for purchasing
but is not a reliable index of the flour's baking
performance. The quality of the protein is genetically determined.
In wheat varieties that are grown under comparable
environmental conditions, a high-quality wheat
54 Baking & Snack August 2021 / www.bakingbusiness.com
will produce good bread over a broad range of protein
levels, but a poor-quality wheat will generally result in
low-quality bread, even if the protein content is higher.
" Protein quality relates to the flour characteristics that
make it suitable for baking, " said Dave Kovacic, technical
service, Bay State Milling.
Key characteristics include gluten quality attributes,
such as strength during mixing and fermentation, as
well as process tolerance. A quality flour has the ability
to perform under varied environmental or mechanical
conditions. For bread flours, this also includes the ability
to bind with and hold water, the strength of the gluten to
hold gas and the ability to provide loaf volume.
A bakery might want to change its formula for cost
savings, but a change may mean a significant adjustment
to the process.
" To achieve the nuances between different
types of
baked goods, it's important to choose not only the right
level of protein, but also the quality of protein best suited
for the product, " said Josh Reasoner, milling technical
service manager, ADM. " Cakes and pastries, for example,
ordinarily use a soft wheat flour. They will be sensitive to
a change in protein, both quantity and quality. The flour
included in a cookie, on the other hand, is more of a vessel
for the sugars, fat and other elements in the formulation. "
Managing variations in flour quality can sometimes
just require small changes to processes or formulation.
" If bakers are thinking about switching flours or looking
for flour to meet their new desire quality characteristics,
they should reach out to their flour supplier to talk
through options, " Mr. Ostrander said. " While that could
mean using a new flour product, bakers might also find
that small changes to their current process or formulation
can make significant differences in the final baked good. "
Experimenting with bread
The formulation for white sandwich bread is a straightforward
example to demonstrate how flour's protein content
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Baking & Snack - August 2021

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Baking & Snack - August 2021

Baking & Snack - August 2021 - Intro
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 1
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 2
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - vdg -1
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - vdg -2
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 3
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 4
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 5
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 6
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 7
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 8
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 9
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 10
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 11
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 12
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 13
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 14
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 15
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 16
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 17
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 18
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 19
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 20
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 21
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 22
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 23
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 24
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 25
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 26
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 27
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 28
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 29
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 30
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 31
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 32
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 33
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 34
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 35
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 36
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 37
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 38
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 39
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 40
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 41
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 42
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 43
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 44
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 45
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 46
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 47
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 48
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 49
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 50
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 51
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 52
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 53
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 54
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 55
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 56
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 57
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 58
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 59
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 60
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 61
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 62
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 63
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 64
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 65
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 66
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 67
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Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 69
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 70
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 71
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 72
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 73
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 74
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Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 77
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 78
Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 79
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Baking & Snack - August 2021 - 81
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