Baking & Snack - April 2021 - 54

FATS & OILS

Top: For donuts, saturated fat in the frying oil
helps provide mouthfeel
and structure to the
finished donut.
Qualisoy

Bottom: Cookies rely
less on fat for structure,
so it's easier to reduce
saturates. Icings and
fillings, however, need
saturates for mouthfeel
and texture.
Cargill

to better predict its functionality in an application, " said
Andrea Weis, customer innovation application specialist, AAK USA.
Only by understanding where a bakery product is
starting can bakers determine where it needs to go as
they try to reduce saturated fat content without negatively impacting flavor, mouthfeel, structure or shelf life.

Following the right thread
Bakers have several different strategies they can employ
to lower saturates in their formulations without affecting finished product quality. The most straightforward
way is in the fat itself.
" In less demanding applications, such as certain
cookie and cake varieties, bakers can swap out a portion
of their current fat product with a lower saturate, liquid
oil in order to reduce saturated fat levels, " Ms. Weis said.
" In more demanding applications, such as biscuits and
pastries, the ideal way to decrease saturated fat in a formulation is to use specially developed shortening and
margarine products that are designed to reduce saturated fat levels without compromising on functionality. "
Ms. Weis also suggested that in the case of all-butter
formulations, bakers can replace some of the butter with
margarine to bring down saturates.
" Traditional dairy butter contains 63% saturated fat while AAK's
Cisao 82-85 margarine contains 49%
saturated fat and is formulated with
a blend of palm and soybean oils, "
she said. " Through the selection of
specific fat and oil fractions from
a variety of plant sources, AAK
develops shortening and margarine products that can help formulators meet specific nutritional goals for
their products. "
Blending oils is a common way to thread
that needle of lowering saturates and still
providing functionality.

54 Baking & Snack April 2021 / www.bakingbusiness.com

" Every input oil has two elements: a saturate fat and
a polyunsaturated component, " Mr. Daniels explained.
" Blends of oils that might be naturally lower in sat fat is a
way to arrive at a shortening to get the functionality that
you need without the high degree of saturated fat. "
To do this effectively, formulators should be aware of the
saturate levels of various input oils. Canola sits at about 9%
saturated fat, soybean about 15%, while lard and palm are
at the higher end with 36% and 47%, respectively.
" Blending liquid oils that have a high level of monoand poly-unsaturated fatty acids, with fats that contain
a higher level of saturated fatty acids, is a great way to
reduce overall saturated fat content, " said John Satumba,
PhD, Cargill's global bakery technical lead and regional
director for North America.
High oleics bring added stability to the game, which
can benefit shelf life.
" When reducing saturated fat levels, formulators can
take advantage of highly unsaturated oils that have increased oxidative stability, such as high oleic sunflower
oil, " Ms. Weis explained. " Oils that contain greater levels
of high oleic acid are more stable and don't require the
addition of an antioxidant, helping to make cleaner ingredient statements and healthier nutrition panels. "
Beyond blending, enzymatic interesterification provides
formulators another way to develop low saturate, functional fats.
" Interesterification allows you to rearrange the presentation of saturates to unsaturates to affect physical changes in
the blend so the physical blend of oil and fat will look different after interesterification than if you physically blend, "
Mr. Daniels explained.
Rather than a simple blending of oils, this process rearranges the molecules of two shortenings or oils to create an
entirely new homogenous ingredient.
" It allows you to take two extremes and create a product that has completely different characteristics, " Mr.
Strayer said.
Bakers may need to look outside of fat solutions to replace lost functionality, however, and there are options in


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Baking & Snack - April 2021

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Baking & Snack - April 2021 - 1
Baking & Snack - April 2021 - 1
Baking & Snack - April 2021 - 2
Baking & Snack - April 2021 - 3
Baking & Snack - April 2021 - 4
Baking & Snack - April 2021 - 5
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