Baking & Snack -june 2022 - 20

SOSLAND PUBLISHING
years
had largely been guesswork and accident.
The Fleischmanns certainly didn't
invent yeast. In 1857, it was Louis
Pasteur who discovered what
yeast could do. By studying
fermentation, Mr. Pasteur
confirmed that yeast was
a microorganism, and
that
it converted sugar
into alcohol and carbon
dioxide. He also found
out that yeast contaminated
with Lactobacillus
produced a souring lactic
acid, and that if air was
added during the fermentation
process, the yeast would
multiply. While these discoveries
led to Mr. Pasteur's contributions to
medical science, it also provided every
industry that uses yeast the foundational
scientific knowledge to harness specific strains and
Charles Fleischmann
with his brother Max
and partner James
Gaff created the
first commercialized
yeast for the
baking industry.
AB Mauri North America
make them more consistent.
Enter the Fleischmann family, specifically brothers
Charles and Max. Distillers by trade, Charles and Max
Fleischmann immigrated to the United States from their
native Austria in 1866. After establishing themselves
in the US, the brothers saw a need in their new home
in Cincinnati to provide European-style bread to their
Austrian-German community. They partnered with
James Gaff to develop, manufacture and sell compressed
yeast from a strain brought from Austria for both commercial
and home bakers. The brothers and Mr. Gaff
founded Gaff, Fleischmann & Co. in 1868.
" Yeast fermentation and baking are very scientific
processes, " said Michelle Brodie, director of yeast technology
of AB Mauri North America, which currently
owns the Fleischmann's brand. " Consistency is key to
ensuring our customers are putting out the same product
week after week. "
The next scientific advancement in yeast was the
invention of active dry yeast. In 1933, Harold Allden
Ander invented the process that would dehydrate fresh
yeast while maintaining its functionality. Standard
Brands, which owned the Fleischmann's brand at the
time, patented the process and launched Fleischmann's
Active Dry Yeast. This added months to the shelf life
of yeast, removing concerns from commercial bakers
about losing the viability of the fresh yeast they were
purchasing. All they needed to do was simply rehydrate
the dormant yeast.
In 1984, Fleischmann's would make yeast even easier
to use with its RapidRise Instant Yeast. This ingredient
20 Baking & Snack June 2022 / www.bakingbusiness.com
could simply be added to the mixing bowl and deliver
the rise bakers needed.
" What
revolutionized
the
industry
was when
Fleischmann's developed the dry yeast because you
could just add it to the dough mix, " Ms. Brodie said.
" Then they continued to revolutionize by developing
the fast-rising dry yeast. Bakers could just add it to the
dough mix without hydration. These dry products are
now staples. "
Back and forth with fats
No other major ingredient category may have had more
ups and downs in the past 100 years than fats and oils.
These ingredients aren't critical to every bakery application
- most bread formulations don't require much if
any fat. But for those bakery applications that do need
fat - cakes, donuts or laminated doughs - these ingredients
do a lot of heavy lifting.
Every time fats and oils have had to shift to appease
health-conscious consumers or the US Food & Drug
Administration, the baking industry has waited with
baited-breath to see if the latest replacements would
hold up to previous standards.
Originally, bakers used butter or lard, traditional animal
fats, to provide lift and flavor to their baked goods,
or the perfect fry on their donuts. In 1911, the development
of Crisco - the first commercially produced partially
hydrogenated oil - and the heavy marketing push
around the new ingredient to home bakers, began the
fall of animal fat. It was cheaper than animal fats with
similar functionality and began outpacing lard as the fat
of choice for home bakers.
Partial hydrogenation enables bakers to use vegetable
oils as shortening. The process converts vegetable oils
into solid forms of varying plasticity. Unlike simply
blending vegetable oils, hydrogenation also improves the
shortening's resistance to oxidation and rancidity.
" Those shortenings provided the tenderness, structure
and mouthfeel consumers expected, " said Frank
Flider, oils consultant for the United Soybean Board.
" When PHOs went away, the problem became matching
the performance we had with PHOs and animal fats and
developing shortenings that had the same characteristics
that bakers are used to. "
Unlike animal fats, which gain their functionality
from saturated fat, PHOs use trans fats to get those
same characteristics. In the 1950s when saturated fat
was linked to cardiovascular health, PHOs became even
more in vogue as a way to eliminate saturated fats from
baked goods. However, when new science found trans
fats to be even more hazardous to human health than
saturated fats, the FDA stepped in.
In 2015, the FDA revoked the Generally Recognized
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Baking & Snack -june 2022

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Baking & Snack -june 2022

Baking & Snack -june 2022 - Intro
Baking & Snack -june 2022 - 1
Baking & Snack -june 2022 - 2
Baking & Snack -june 2022 - 3
Baking & Snack -june 2022 - 4
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