Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 40

CHEMICAL LEAVENING

MATCHING ALTERNATIVES
WITH APPLICATIONS

Low-sodium or sodium-free chemical leavening ingredients can work well in any application, as long as bakers
are paying attention to dough rate of reaction (DRR) and
neutralizing values. For some of the alternative chemical
leavening ingredients, certain applications work better.
Ammonium bicarbonate, for example, contains no
sodium and provides an efficient gas release, but it comes
with some limitations.
" It is not used in prepared mixes because of its odor,
but it finds utility in crackers and cookies that have low
finished water content, less than 5%, " said Robert Berube,
technical services manager, Church & Dwight.
Calcium- or potassium-based acids can also be replacements for sodium-based ones, but these have more success in tortilla or bread products. Cake applications can
pose a challenge to reformulating with these alternatives.
" This is because the tender texture of a cake has a lot
to do with a balanced chemical leavening system, " said
Yanling Yin, PhD, director of RD&A, Ingredient Solutions,
Corbion. " Any delayed or imbalanced system with nonsodium acids would result in cakes with a tough texture or
misshaped final product. "

THE AVERAGE AMERICAN
CONSUMES 2,000-5,000 MG OF
SODIUM PER DAY.
THE RECOMMENDED SODIUM INTAKE
IS 1,000-2,000 MG PER DAY.

3%

OF TOTAL SODIUM INTAKE
COMES FROM YEAST BREADS
AND TORTILLAS.

4%
4%

COMES FROM DESSERTS AND
SWEET SNACKS.
OF SODIUM INTAKE
COMES FROM CHIPS,
CRACKERS AND
SAVORY SNACKS.

Source: Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2020; NHANES 20132016. ©Jiri Hera - stock.adobe.com

40 Baking & Snack March 2021 / www.bakingbusiness.com

cost, " said Robert Berube, technical services manager,
Church & Dwight.
Sodium bicarbonate is 27.4% sodium by weight, but it
doesn't stop with the base. Sodium acid pyrophosphate
(SAPP), sodium aluminum sulfate (SAS) and sodium
aluminum phosphate (SALP) show up often in bakery
applications due to their capability to tailor to a product's specific characteristics, Mr. Berube explained.
SAPP contributes 20.7% sodium by weight, SAS provides 9.5%, and SALP contributes 7.7%. Replacing one
or both sides of the chemical leavening system can make
a significant dent in the sodium contribution.
" For example, the substitution of calcium acid pyrophosphate for SAPP in a typical double-acting baking powder formulation can reduce approximately half
of the sodium content found in the leavening system, "
said Paul Bright, senior innovation manager and product category manager for chemical leavening, AB Mauri
North America. " If the formulator is looking to achieve
a higher level of sodium reduction, the substitution of
both SAPP and sodium bicarbonate with calcium acid
pyrophosphate and potassium bicarbonate, respectively,
can further reduce sodium content in the leavening system by nearly 100%. "
Substituting these easy-to-use, affordable ingredients
doesn't have to be difficult as long as formulators know
what road signs they are looking for. The desired characteristics of the finished product are first and foremost.
" Each baked good is a masterpiece of its own with
a particular formula and set of ingredients that work
together to create every delicious aspect of the baked
good, " said Yanling Yin, PhD, director of RD&A, ingredient solutions, Corbion. " For example, you would
likely choose different ingredients and leavening systems for a flat-top muffin versus a dome-topped muffin.
Depending on the process and when the leavening occurs, you could see two very different outcomes. "
Achieving the desired outcome requires a knowledge
of the reaction happening and how to replicate it without - or simply with less - sodium.
" Analysis of the current leavening system is critical.
Formulators must pay attention to neutralizing values,
solubility, reaction rates and activation temperatures, "
Ms. Livvix said. " To seamlessly lower sodium, matching
these attributes of the current leavening system with sodium free options is crucial to maintaining the quality of
the baked product. "
Non-sodium options for leavening acids include
monocalcium phosphate (MCP), calcium acid pyrophosphate (CAPP) and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate
(DCPD). Cream of tartar and glucono delta-lactone
work for bakers looking for organic acids. Potassium
bicarbonate and ammonium bicarbonate, in certain ap-


http://www.bakingbusiness.com

Baking & Snack - March 2021

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Baking & Snack - March 2021

Baking & Snack - March 2021 - Intro
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 1
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 2
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 3
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 4
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 5
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 6
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 7
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 8
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 9
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 10
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 11
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 12
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 13
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 14
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 15
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 16
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 17
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 18
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 19
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 20
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 21
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 22
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 23
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 24
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 25
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 26
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 27
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 28
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 29
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 30
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 31
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 32
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 33
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 34
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 35
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 36
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 37
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 38
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 39
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 40
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 41
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 42
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 43
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 44
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 45
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 46
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 47
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 48
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 49
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 50
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 51
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 52
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 53
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 54
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 55
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 56
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 57
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 58
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 59
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 60
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 61
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 62
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 63
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 64
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 65
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 66
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 67
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 68
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 69
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 70
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 71
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 72
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 73
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 74
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 75
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 76
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 77
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 78
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 79
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 80
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 81
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 82
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 83
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 84
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 85
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 86
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 87
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 88
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 89
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 90
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 91
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 92
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 93
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 94
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 95
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 96
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 97
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 98
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 99
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 100
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 101
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 102
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 103
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 104
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 105
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 106
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 107
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 108
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 109
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 110
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 111
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 112
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 113
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 114
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 115
Baking & Snack - March 2021 - 116
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/baking-snack-april-2021
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/baking-snack-march-2021
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/baking-snack-february-2021
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2020_12_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2020_11_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2020_10_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2020_09_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2020_08_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2020_07_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2020_06_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2020_05_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2020_04_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2020_03_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2020_02_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2019_12_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2019_11_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2019_10_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2019_09_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2019_08_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2019_07_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2019_06_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2019_05_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2019_04_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2019_03_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2019_02_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2018_12_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2018_11_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2018_10_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2018_09_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2018_08_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2018_07_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2018_06_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2018_05_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2018_04_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2018_03_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2018_02_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2017_12_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2017_11_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2017_10_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2017_09_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2017_08_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2017_07_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2017_06_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2017_05_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2017_04_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2017_03_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2017_02_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2016_12_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2016_11_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2016_10_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2016_09_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2016_08_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2016_07_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2016_06_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2016_05_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2016_04_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2016_03_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2016_02_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2015_12_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2015_11_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2015_10_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2015_09_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2015_08_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2015_07_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2015_06_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2015_05_02
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2015_04_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2015_03_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2015_02_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2014_12_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2014_11_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2014_10_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2014_09_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2014_08_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2014_07_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2014_06_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2014_05_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2014_04_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2014_03_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2014_02_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2013_12_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2013_11_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2013_10_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2013_09_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2013_08_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2013_07_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2013_06_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2013_05_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2013_04_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2013_03_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2013_02_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2012_12_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2012_11_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2012_10_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2012_09_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2012_08_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2012_07_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2012_06_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2012_05_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2012_04_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2012_03_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2012_02_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2011_12_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2011_11_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2011_10_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2011_09_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2011_08_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2011_07_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2011_06_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2011_05_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2011_04_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2011_03_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2011_02_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2010_12_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2010_11_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2010_10_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2010_09_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2010_08_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2010_07_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2010_06_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2010_05_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2010_04_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2010_03_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2010_02_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2009_12_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2009_11_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2009_10_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2009_09_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2009_08_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2009_07_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2009_06_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2009_05_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2009_04_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2009_03_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2009_02_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2008_12_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2008_11_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2008_10_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2008_09_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2008_08_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2008_07_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2008_06_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2008_05_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2008_04_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2008_03_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2008_02_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2007_12_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2007_11_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2007_10_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2007_09_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2007_08_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2007_07_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2007_06_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2007_05_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2007_04_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2007_02_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2006_12_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2006_11_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2006_10_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2006_09_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2006_08_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2006_07_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2006_06_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2006_05_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2006_04_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2006_03_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2006_02_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2005_12_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/bs/2005_11_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2005_10_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2005_09_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2005_08_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2005_07_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2005_06_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2005_05_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2005_04_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2005_03_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2005_02_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2004_12_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2004_11_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2004_10_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2004_09_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2004_08_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2004_07_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2004_06_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2004_05_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2004_04_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2004_03_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2004_02_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2003_12_01
http://digitalbs.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/bs/2003_11_01
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com