Baking & Snack - December 2020 - 36

CHEMICAL LEAVENING

If there are acidic
ingredients other
than leavening acid,
they can react with
the bicarbonate,
so adding extra
bicarbonate to the
formulation can
offset loss in rise.
Clabber Girl

" Maintaining optimal leavening capabilities in frozen
products can be a challenge, due to the occurrence of gas
release during mixing, frozen storage and thawing, resulting in an inadequate amount of carbon dioxide gas
available for baking, " said Nita Livvix, R&D manager,
Clabber Girl. " When that happens, the baked product
has low volume, poor structure and a compromised
shelf life due to faster staling. "
Even after the dough is frozen, these reactions can
still take place. In frozen storage, temperatures can drop
and rise again, if only by a few degrees, kicking off mini
freeze-thaw cycles. These cycles increase the size of ice
crystals in the dough or batter.
" As the ice crystals grow in size, they will, in effect, act
as scissors to damage the frozen dough or batter causing
dough matrix stability issues, " said Paul Bright, senior
innovation manager, AB Mauri North America. " As the
dough or batter loses stability, the ability for it to retain
the gasses produced by the chemical leavener during baking is lessened, resulting in loss of baked product volume. "
Freezing the gas reaction and starch gelatinization
in time is what makes frozen dough a viable option for
these bakers' customers. Interrupting this chemical reaction requires the right choice of chemical leavener, as
well as some formulating and processing optimization.

Inside the reaction
To properly interrupt the chemical leavening reaction,
it is important to understand what activates it and how
bakers can exert some control. Chemical leavening solutions can be customized to get the appropriate reaction

36 Baking & Snack December 2020 / www.bakingbusiness.com

and result, but bakers have to know what is happening in
the formula to get it right.
" The primary point on chemical leavening solutions
for frozen dough or batter applications is that leavening systems are not one-size-fits-all answers for optimal
baked product performance, " Mr. Bright said. " A thorough understanding of the functionality of the leavening
system components is essential. "
Chemical leavening systems are made up of an acid
and a base. When water is added to the formula, it begins the reaction between the leavening acid and the
base to release the gases that contribute to the baked
good's rise.
" In standard processing, once the batter or dough has
been mixed, it would be baked, and the gases produced
from the leavening reaction will help achieve the volume and structure of the baked product, " Ms. Thomas
explained.
Leavening acids can be phosphate, sulfate or organic
acid, and common bases are sodium bicarbonate or potassium bicarbonate. These acids and bases can be put
together to create custom solutions to get the proper reaction timing as well as volume and appearance. Rates
of reaction differ among leavening acids. Understanding
this process is critical to getting that timing right.
" Since there is no industry standard test to determine
dough gassing rates of reaction (DRR), not all acidulants
are interchangeable, " Mr. Bright explained. " For example, one sodium acid phyrophosphate 28 (SAPP 28) may
have a totally different DRR compared to a similar product from a different SAPP 28 manufacturer. "


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Baking & Snack - December 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Baking & Snack - December 2020

Baking & Snack - December 2020 - 1
Baking & Snack - December 2020 - 1
Baking & Snack - December 2020 - 2
Baking & Snack - December 2020 - 3
Baking & Snack - December 2020 - 4
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