Baking & Snack - December 2020 - 35

FORMULATION
Chemical Leavening

Delaying the chemical leavening reaction in frozen doughs and batters
ensures that the end customer gets the most rise out of baked goods.
by Charlotte Atchley

F

For baked goods that don't rely on yeast for a rise, there
are chemical leaveners. These acids and bases combine
in a dough or batter to react and create a gas that lifts the
muffin, cake, cracker or cookie to its full volume. Once
these ingredients come together in the mixing bowl, the
reaction kicks off. In products that will be baked right
away, that reaction can continue at its natural pace and
bakers will get the volume and texture needed as long
as the ratios of ingredients are accurate. In the case of
frozen doughs and batters, however, that reaction must
be put on ice.
" Bakers need excellent performance from their products when working with frozen doughs and batters, " said
Christopher Bohm, senior director of business development, frozen, Corbion. " Meeting these high expectations when it comes to thawing, baking and preparation
for consumption means they must pay close attention to
the amount, type and ratio of acid to soda in order to
achieve optimum results. "
To deliver a product that will fully rise and not col-

lapse in the oven, wholesale frozen dough and batter
producers must carefully choose leavening ingredients
that will react at the exact moment for the perfect rise.

The freeze/thaw cycle can happen
multiple times during frozen storage,
which can hinder the chemical
leavening agents' effectiveness.
©Arina Photography - stock.adobe.com

An icy reaction
Freezing dough interrupts the chemical reaction that
creates leavening. If not done properly or with the right
system, this interruption can cause issues.
" In a frozen dough, the leavening system has been
hydrated; however, the reaction needs to be delayed to
withstand the freezing and thawing process and still be
available for the bake in order to release the carbon dioxide and provide the leavening, " said Mary Thomas, senior R&D manager, Lesaffre Corp.
Many chemical leavening agents begin reacting as
soon as they are hydrated in the mixing bowl, but as
Ms. Thomas explained, this reaction needs to be put
on hold to survive the freezing process. If too much
gas is released before freezing, bakers will not see the
rise they require.

www.bakingbusiness.com / December 2020 Baking & Snack 35


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Baking & Snack - December 2020

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