Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 72

WHY TEMPERATURE IMPACTS
DIFFERENT PRODUCTS IN THEIR OWN WAYS
MIXING

When it comes to the impact of heat in the mixer,
hydration has a lot to do with it.
"Generally, higher hydration level doughs are
mixed at lower temperatures because the flour is
more willing to absorb water at lower temperatures,"
said Jim Warren, vice president, Exact Mixing,
Reading Bakery Systems.
Additionally, warmer ingredients don't hydrate as
well as the cooler ones, and that can impact mixing.
"More energy is required to hydrate these
ingredients," he said. "But the additional mixing only
heats the dough more, which makes the ingredients
all the more difficult to hydrate."
Mr. Warren calls this the "heat of hydration."
In batch mixing, sponge-and-dough products pose
a particular challenge in the mixer.
With a 60% sponge, for example, that portion of
the dough enters the final mixer at around 78°F to
80°F, and the flour coming in is around 100°F.
"You're not getting much help in that final mixing
stage to cool the dough when a large amount of
the ingredients enter the mixer at 78°F," said Terry
Bartsch, executive product manager, dough systems,
AMF Bakery Systems. "You're targeting a 78°F
final dough, and you still have to put mechanical
energy into it; that's challenging, especially in the
summertime."
A good rule of thumb is the higher the hydration
of the dough, the cooler it needs to be. One example
is English muffin dough, which is inherently sticky,
even at its optimum temperature. For this batter-like
dough, a baker looking for a final dough temperature
between 62 and 66°F.
Dough development also comes into play,
according to Joe Cross, engineering and process
manager, Zeppelin Systems USA.
"Less developed dough has a little bit greater
range of forgiveness than a more highly developed
dough like for a sandwich bread or hamburger bun,"
he said. "Those doughs have a narrower operating
range to get a higher quality product."
In many cases, pre-hydration can reduce mixing
time, which will naturally help control temperature.
Zeppelin's Dymomix technology achieves this.
"We're pre-hydrating the flour - and all preblended dry ingredients - and we're adding water,
yeast and other liquid ingredients. By pre-hydrating
efficiently, we significantly reduce the overall mix
time, which lowers the friction that manifests itself as
heat."
When bakers are working with equipment
manufacturers on mixer design, they should be sure
to consider the product type and hydration needs
when configuring the tools for temperature control.

72 Baking & Snack September 2020 / www.bakingbusiness.com

In a batch system, which can take around 20 minutes to
process, that yeast can cause the dough to bubble up in the
divider hopper, which makes it almost impossible to accurately scale.
"When it comes straight out of the mixer even just a little
bit on the warm side and you start dividing it, no problem,"
Mr. McGhie said. "But as it sits there and yeast starts to activate, the density of the dough can change, and it can throw
it out of spec."
While this can lead to issues in the proof, bake and finished
product, bakers must once again remember to revisit the mixer before jumping to formula adjustments with the yeast.
"When bakers have the right mixing tools, they see how
much better it is," Mr. McGhie said. "It's all about finding the
root cause of the problem rather than just putting a BandAid on it."
To maintain the proper heat levels during mixing, there
are tools to keep that number in the appropriate range, but it
also requires a bit of basic math.
When water enters the mixer, it delivers a negative impact
on the dough ... in terms of heat, that is.
So, for instance, with a chilled water system, water will
come into the mixer at roughly 34°F, where the flour is about
100°F, the starting temperature of the unmixed ingredients is
somewhere in the 50° to 60°F range.
"The target temperature for a final dough is between 75° to
78°F," Mr. Bartsch said, "but that's not easy when you're starting with warm ingredients. The unmixed ingredients need to
be in the low 60s when you start, and the temperature of the
dough will warm up from there because of the mechanical energy being put into the dough during the kneading process."
A similar principle applies to batter mixing when a cooling jacket is used on the bowl.
"Domestic cold water is around 50-to-60°F, and you'll get
some cooling with that," said Bob Peck, vice president, E.T.
Oakes Co. "But, of course, when you run 20°F glycol, you
get a better heat transfer through the jacket into the mixing
head. It gives more ability to cool it down further, just by the
fact that it's colder."
These basic engineering principles resonate across any
type of mixer.
"You have to consider what the temperature is for all ingredients and the specific heat of each," Mr. Warren said.
"From there, it's a straight calculation. The only variable is
the cooling efficiency of each mixer."
And that's where design comes into play.

The thick and thin of it
Cooling a batter or dough can sometimes require incorporating a refrigeration system that can pump chilled water or coolant to the jacket of a mixer. But that's only one piece of the
puzzle. There are critical aspects to the mixer's design that play
a role in how efficiently the cooling system will work.


http://www.bakingbusiness.com

Baking & Snack - September 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Baking & Snack - September 2020

editorial - When 'unprecedented' becomes the status quo
newsfront
In brief/people
trends snapshot news
Special report: Incubators -- A brand-new beginning
Operations: Muffin Town -- New rules for schools
Trends: Pretzels -- back in the spotlight
Formulation: Fats & oils -- Dialing into functionality
Formulation: Sourcing & Supply Chain -- Global web of ingredients
Equipment: Pizza tech -- Piling it on
Equipment: Mixing -- Keep your cool
Equipment: Finishing -- Seeking the perfect touch
Operations: Augmented & virtual reality -- Playing pretend
Equipment: Bottlenecks -- Breaking the bottleneck
Events
Innovations
Featured technical expert
Ingredients & formulating
Equipment & packaging
Patents
New on the shelf
New product spotlight -- A change of pace
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 1
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 1
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 2
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 3
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 4
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 5
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 6
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 7
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 8
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 9
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - editorial - When 'unprecedented' becomes the status quo
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 11
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - newsfront
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 13
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 14
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 15
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - In brief/people
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - trends snapshot news
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - Special report: Incubators -- A brand-new beginning
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 19
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 20
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 21
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 22
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 23
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - Operations: Muffin Town -- New rules for schools
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 25
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 26
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 27
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 28
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 29
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 30
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 31
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 32
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 33
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 34
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - Trends: Pretzels -- back in the spotlight
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 36
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 37
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 38
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 39
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 40
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 41
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 42
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - Formulation: Fats & oils -- Dialing into functionality
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 44
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 45
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 46
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 47
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 48
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 49
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 50
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - Formulation: Sourcing & Supply Chain -- Global web of ingredients
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 52
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 53
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 54
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 55
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 56
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 57
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 58
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - Equipment: Pizza tech -- Piling it on
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 60
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 61
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 62
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 63
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 64
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 65
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 66
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 67
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 68
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - Equipment: Mixing -- Keep your cool
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 70
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 71
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 72
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 73
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 74
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 75
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 76
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 77
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 78
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - Equipment: Finishing -- Seeking the perfect touch
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 80
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 81
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 82
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 83
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 84
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 85
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 86
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - Operations: Augmented & virtual reality -- Playing pretend
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 88
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 89
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 90
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - Equipment: Bottlenecks -- Breaking the bottleneck
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 92
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 93
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 94
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 95
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - Events
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 97
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 98
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - Innovations
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - Featured technical expert
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 101
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - Ingredients & formulating
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 103
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - Equipment & packaging
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 105
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 106
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 107
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 108
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - Patents
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - New on the shelf
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 111
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 112
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 113
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 114
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 115
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 116
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 117
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 118
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 119
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 120
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 121
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - New product spotlight -- A change of pace
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 123
Baking & Snack - September 2020 - 124
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