Baking & Snack - August 2020 - 57

FORMULATION
Inclusions

Bakers have plenty of options to add a little texture and health to their products.
by Donna Berry

A

A raisin swirled bagel gets topped with cinnamon-roasted almond slices. A diced apple pumpkin muffin's streusel contains brown sugar-glazed pumpkin seeds and
oat flakes. Pecan praline-coated whey protein clusters
decorate and add essential amino acids to a chocolateenrobed sports recovery bar.
Fruits, grains, nuts and seeds along with fabricated
bits, chips and chunks - possibly with added protein
or fiber - are trending in the baked goods sector. Such
inclusions not only provide color, flavor and texture, but
they also contribute nutrition and a healthful halo.

Careful consideration
The No. 1 variable is moisture content of both the inclusion and the base product. Barriers such as coatings and
glazes may be employed to prevent undesirable moisture
migration. Recipes may also need to be adjusted to account for any moisture addition from the inclusion.
After moisture control, lipid oxidation must be addressed. High-fat inclusions such as nuts and seeds can
go rancid over time. Again, barriers may assist as well as
the addition of antioxidants. Other key attributes to take
into account include batter and dough density, baking
time and temperature, product pH, water activity of the
final baked product, and desired shelf life.
"You need to think about whether you want a burst of
color in the crumb or a smear in a dough," said Deborah
Waters, senior business development manager-bakery,
Kerry Ingredients. "You need to consider if a melted

pocket of maple, for example, is preferred over a more
intact toffee chip inclusion after baking. You also need
to consider the formula carefully to prevent burning in a
pre-bake topping application or if the baked product will
go through a freeze-thaw or refrigerated shelf-life cycle."

Almonds, whether
whole or in pieces,
provide protein and
healthy fats to any
baked good.
Blue Diamond Almonds
Global Ingredients

Whole-food inclusions
Fruits, grains, nuts and seeds are common in baked
goods. Depending on the application, these additions
may require slight processing changes to maintain integrity over time or to better perform in baked goods.
"Dried apples, for example, are available in different
forms, moisture levels or levels of dehydration, in order to extend the shelf life, supply low-cost transportation and storage, ease handling, and reduce labor," said
Jeannie Swedberg, director of business development,
Tree Top Inc. "They also offer a higher degree of food
safety due to their reduced water activity."
These ingredients carry phytonutrients and antioxidants; contribute to dietary fiber; and contain vitamin C,
beta carotene, B-complex vitamins and vitamin B6.
Basic dried apple ingredients contain 14 to 26% moisture. If less moisture is required, an intermediate option
is in the range of 12 to 18% and a low-moisture version
is 2 to 14%. Other fruits are available with similar moisture contents. Depending on the application, dried fruit
ingredients require hydration prior to use.
"Our regular moisture level apples, for example, require three- to five-parts water by weight to one-part

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