Baking & Snack - August 2020 - 48

EMULSIFIERS

EMULSIFIERS AID IN REACHING THAT
MAXIMUM ABSORPTION, RESULTING
IN A HOMOGENOUS AND STABLE
DOUGH WITH A DRIER SURFACE. 

As dough is machined,
the gluten structure
could be damaged,
affecting volume.
Stock.adobe.com

dividers without tearing the gluten, resulting in improved volume and tolerance, even though
flour quality and environmental
changes are constant. Simply, the
addition of Panodan DATEM gives the baker a tool to
produce the same quality loaf, day in and day out."
Panodan DATEM also improves a loaf 's shock tolerance, or its ability to withstand vibrations from the
production line with minimal collapsing of the loaf 's
structure.
While DATEM and sodium stearoyl lactylate (SSL)
have the go-to dough strengthening enzymes for decades, distilled mono- or diglycerides have long been the
popular solutions for softening.
Monoglycerides can provide a wealth of functionality to bread production. From a formulation standpoint,
monoglycerides can improve bread dough's tolerance to
variations in ingredients and slow down the rate of firming, Mr. Cottrell said. During processing, he explained that
monoglycerides can diminish dough knockdown during

48 Baking & Snack August 2020 / www.bakingbusiness.com

conveyor handling; improve machineability, crumb texture,
loaf volume; and ensure clean and efficient slicing.
DATEM, SSL, mono- or diglycerides are often combined in some way to provide a balance of strength for
the processing line and softness for the final consumer.
"It really comes down to what functional requirements a baker has for process tolerance, finished good
quality improvements such as softening or anti-sticking
during shelf life, and more," Mr. Boutte said. "The overall application in mind will guide bakery formulators to
the appropriate ingredient solution necessary."

A little goes a long way
As with all ingredients, when formulating with an emulsifier, bakers must identify what they need it to accomplish. The function - whether it's softening, strengthening, anti-sticking or shelf life - will determine the starting point with formulation.
"If additional shelf life, improved tenderness or mouth
'getaway' is desired, a dough strengthener may not be
necessary," Mr. Mallory said. "Variations of emulsifiers
are very useful to provide other specific effects, such as
anti-sticking in tortillas or flatbreads."
Knowing the goals up front ensures bakers are taking
a targeted approach without adding unnecessary ingredients. Because when it comes to emulsifiers, a little goes
a long way.
"For many emulsifiers, following the manufacturer's
suggested usage will help greatly in getting the desired result because overdosing can become an issue,"
Mr. Skrzypiec said.
Mr. Cottrell echoed that sentiment, explaining that
even small levels of the right emulsifier can improve
yields and reduce downtime and rejected product.
"One thing I would consider when formulating is to
not over-complicate bread formulations with multiple
emulsifiers," he said. "Yes, DATEM and SSL are more
associated with dough strengthening while monoglycerides are what we refer to as crumb softeners, but both
classes of emulsifiers have all these secondary dough
conditioning effects."
When matching emulsifier to application, bakers also
need to consider the processing environment and other
ingredients in the formulation.
"For example, crumb-softening emulsifiers are available in both powders and semi-solid pastes to provide
excellent functionality regardless of the process limitations," Mr. Robertson said. "Depending on the applica-


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