Baking & Snack - June 2020 - 58

GLUTEN FREE

Mr. Gumeny said. "Whether it's the nice spongy texture in cake or the satisfactory crunch of a cookie, the
desired texture can be difficult to duplicate without
fine-tuning your ingredients."

Starch + everything

Gluten-free keeps pace with the march of time
Gluten-free baked foods across the board tend to be
sensitive the passage of time. Because these formulations
are heavily reliant on starch, their texture can change
more quickly than conventional products as the starch
retrogrades.
"Due to the starch and leavening systems, glutenfree items tend to absorb moisture resulting in textural
changes, like losing crispness in cookies or reducing
the contrast between crust and crumb in bread," said
Leda Strand; manager, snacks, bakery and confections,
applications science and technology; ADM. "Typically,
gluten-free products need to be frozen or refrigerated
to maintain the preferred sensory characteristics. These
products are then slacked out at retail or before eating."
Textural changes over time are usually the result
of starch retrogradation, and since starch is a highly
functional ingredient in sweet goods, especially gluten-free
ones, it can speed up the staling process.
"Looking at the overall ratio of amylose to amylopectin
in the formula and making adjustments can help reduce
staling and improve textural shelf life," said Nick Ahrens,
senior product applications technologist, Bay State Milling
Co. "Amylose will begin to retrograde back to its native
state immediately upon cooling, aiding the structure
and texture of a baked good, whereas amylopectin will
retrograde at a slower rate over time."
Since gluten-free baked goods are often frozen to
maintain their shelf life, Mr. Ahrens recommended sweet
rice flour to increase shelf life through the freeze-thaw
cycles because its starch content is entirely amylopectin.

The texture and strength lost when gluten is removed detracts from the eating experience. Without
these attributes, that experience won't live up to lofty
expectations.
"When it comes to gluten-free sweet baked goods, the
biggest challenge is that bakers have to deliver a product that meets the high expectations of consumers,"
said Yanling Yin, director, bakery application, Corbion.
"They're expecting an item with the same characteristics
as their gluten-containing counterparts."
When trying to rebuild these attributes back into
a formulation, the answer can often be found in the
starch. When reformulating, bakers must understand
the role starch is performing in the particular application and how replacements fill that role.
In a cookie, for example, Mr. Ahrens explained that
the starch granules don't swell and paste, so almost any
gluten-free grain could be used as a replacement for
wheat flour. Cakes and muffins, however, are another
story. Starches provide the viscosity in the batter and
help with moisture migration in the finished product.
Rice-, potato- and corn-based flours and starches
are the workhorses of gluten-free formulating. They
approximate the structure and eating quality of wheat
ingredients, even if they have flavor difference. They
are also widely available, and rice and potato are
non-allergenic.
For bakers wanting to remove wheat-based ingredients, Cargill developed its SimPure line of starches
derived from potato and tapioca.
Even within these workhorses, however, the functionality can vary. The size of the starch granule and
makeup of the amylose to amylopectin ratio particular to rice starch, for example, makes it an effective replacement in gluten-free baking.
"The ratios of amylose to amylopectin in rice flour
will have a major influence on the baked texture of
the finished product," Mr. Ahrens explained. "Sweet
rice flour, sometimes referred to as sticky rice, forms a
creamy batter and soft texture because it is almost entirely amylopectin. At the other end of the rice spectrum, long grain typically has around 25-30% amylose,
which leads to a firmer and shorter texture once baked."
Wet-milled, dry-milled, pre-cooked all have an imCookies are the easiest application to replace gluten as there tends to be
more fat and sugar in the formulation than flour.
Beneo

58 Baking & Snack June 2020 / www.bakingbusiness.com


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