Baking & Snack - May 2020 - 62

WHOLE GRAINS

Left: By blending different
whole grains, bakers can
mitigate or highlight flavor
and texture profiles of
some grains.
Ardent Mills

Right: In applications
like crackers, whole
grains not only lend
their nutrition but also
a variety of texture.
Bay State Milling

gredients is a cinch. There are still challenges that persist or become more complex when using more than
one whole grain.
"Formulating with whole grains is definitely a challenge because within a certain type of grain there are
different characteristics, and those can be anything from
flavor to textural properties," Mr. Smith said. "When you
start blending these together, depending on the application, there are going to be challenges."
One way to mitigate those challenges, especially when
blending whole grains, is to aim for a uniform and standard particle size. This affects the texture of the baked
good and helps prevent stratification of the different
grains throughout the finished product. It also improves
mouthfeel, visual appeal and even flavor.
"A finer granulation will have a more uniform whitebrown color whereas sometimes we can get those bran particles that will shine through if the granulation is coarser,"
Ms. Brensing said. "That can serve as the base for the whole
grain blend to add on ancient grains or seed ingredients."
Another challenge is the gluten structure. Even in
straightforward whole wheat baking, gluten is often added into the formulation to provide extra strength. Other
whole grains, however, can be void of gluten, making
them extra weight for a formulation without contributing anything to the strength.
"With the exception of whole wheat flour, which will
contribute gluten formation in a finished dough, spelt,
rye and barley as well as ancient grains have little or no

62 Baking & Snack May 2020 / www.bakingbusiness.com

gluten functionality," Mr. Reinwald said. "Bakers must
strike a balance between adding enough whole grains
to produce robust flavors or reach a nutritional goal
but not add too much that the dough cannot be properly processed."
To improve structure and oven spring, bakers can add
vital wheat gluten to achieve more consistent loaves. Mr.
Ahrens said, however, organic baking adds one more
layer of complexity that needs to be accommodated.
"This may be even more challenging in organic baking where identity-preserved supply chains do not have
the benefit of blending, which can lead to batch-tobatch inconsistency," he said. "Partnering with suppliers to identify high-performing organic wheat varieties
can help increase quality and consistency from batch
to batch, helping minimize dough additives and reduce
bowl costs while delivering superior quality."
Probably the hallmark hurdle of whole grain formulation is the hydration difference between refined flour
and whole wheat. The hydration piece must be addressed whether creating a conventional whole wheat
loaf of bread or a 21-grain loaf. And this is baked into
the very nature of working with the whole grain rather
than just the endosperm.
"Unlike refined grains, whole grain ingredients contain the entire kernel, including the bran, germ and endosperm," Mr. Heide said. "Because the bran and germ
absorb more moisture than the endosperm, formulators need to adjust the hydration levels in their blends


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