Baking & Snack - April 2020 - 60

TEXTURE

Achieving a CLEAN FREEZE with
LABEL-FRIENDLY INGREDIENTS
A growing number of frozen dough makers are cleaning
up their ingredient statements. For many bakeries, a top
priority is replacing common dough conditioners and
emulsifiers, such as DATEM (and monoglycerides).
"We've found that the same solution that works in retail
bread, combining one of our premium lecithins with the
right enzymes, can be successful in frozen dough, too,"
said Matt Gennrich, senior food technologist, bakery
applications, Cargill.
Customized enzyme-based frozen dough conditioners
assist with water activity in frozen dough, said Alex
Peña, director of product development and technical
services, Bellarise. They may help prevent frozen doughs
from drying out and thereby extend shelf life. Semi-dry
yeast systems assist with extending frozen shelf life by
extending life of the gassing activity in the frozen dough.
The company offers a clean label dough conditioner
crafted specifically for use in frozen dough. Added at 1% of
the formula, it is declared on the ingredient statement as
simply "wheat flour, ascorbic acid and natural enzymes."
Bellarise offers another ingredient that can be used at a
2% usage rate and only contains wheat flour and natural
enzymes. This product is specific to freezer-to-oven frozen
doughs.
"It's perfect for bakeries that don't use proof boxes
and work with laminated doughs, such as croissants and
cinnamon rolls," Mr. Peña said.

directly from freezer to oven. A defrosting step is often
recommended for breads and baguettes. One of the biggest challenges with PFF dough is that temperature fluctuations during storage and transportation may cause
the proofed structure to collapse.
"These two frozen dough formats help all types of
bakers simplify the production process," said Alex Peña,
director of product development and technical services, Bellarise. "Costs are better controlled, and quality is more easily ensured. The PFF dough products give
bakeries more control over their production times and
enhance efficiency. In the case of foodservice customers and home bakers who lack proof boxes, PFF makes
it easy to produce breads by skipping the proofing process altogether."
The third category is referred to as par‐baked frozen
dough. As the name suggests, this is dough that has
been partially baked at low temperature into a crustless
mass and then frozen. It bakes up fast - giving the item
a golden-brown crust - and can be served quickly. It's
the secret behind quick-service pizza chains and many
sub-style sandwich shops, as it helps them eliminate
over-baking and food waste while preparing for an unexpected rush.

Moisture and ice management
With all three types of frozen dough, ingredient technology and processing must be carefully considered to ensure proper leavening and gas retention. Gluten strength
is paramount for desirable shape, crumb structure and
volume. A disrupted gluten network is typically attributed to ice crystal development during freezing and frozen distribution.
"Manufacturing frozen dough is a complicated process," Ms. Yin said. "Considerations must be made for
safety, storage and distribution, which can only be undertaken by businesses that have the experience and access to distribution networks. Further, manufacturing
frozen dough requires blast-freezing capabilities in order to quickly and safely prepare frozen baked goods at
the highest possible quality."
Ice crystal growth occurs readily at temperatures
close to the dough's freezing point. Temperature fluctuation leads to the melting of small ice crystals on the
dough surface and the formation of larger ice crystals,
a process known as recrystallization. Many studies on
how frozen storage affects dough have cited ice recrystallization as the main detrimental factor to frozen
dough product quality.
"Negative effects range from unstable or inconsistent
Above: Fats provide a barrier to moisture loss during freezing, which impacts
many organoleptic properties.
AAK USA

60 Baking & Snack April 2020 / www.bakingbusiness.com

B&S April book.indb 60

4/6/2020 11:17:50 AM


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Baking & Snack - April 2020

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