Baking & Snack - August 2018 - 69
A Defining Decision
Federal fiber ruling presents an innovation
opportunity for formulators.
by Donna Berry
Despite the current government deregulation trend, the
US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently published long-overdue final guidance on fiber ingredients,
providing bakers with clarity in labeling and motivation to boost the fiber content of baked goods. The June
posting in the Federal Register recognized an additional
eight non-digestible carbohydrates as fiber, a nutrient of
concern in the American diet.
FDA's newly recognized fibers include inulin and
inulin-type fructans, including chicory root fiber; highamylose starch (resistant starch 2); polydextrose; mixed
plant cell wall fibers, including sugar cane fiber and apple fiber; arabinoxylan; alginate; galactooligosaccharide;
and resistant maltodextrin/dextrin.
The supporting research clearly showed that these fibers support physiological health benefits as assessed by
FDA's strict criteria. "The problem with the original proposed definition of fiber was that FDA provided a very
limited list of ingredients that had been determined to
have physiological effects that are beneficial to human
health," said Scott Turowski, technical manager, Sensus
America. "This list excluded the majority of ingredients
currently utilized in the market as sources of dietary fiber."
A loaded toolbox
There's long been a plethora of varied fiber ingredients
available to bakers. Now, bakers can choose wisely based
on functional performance in the application and desired label claims. In some instances, claims may be specific health benefits, where other times it's simply a fiber
"Selecting the right type of fiber is critical," said
Patrick Luchsinger, marketing manager, nutrition,
Ingredion, Inc. "Different fibers, for example, can be
used to enhance texture - from crunchy to chewy
to soft - as well as control moisture or reduce calories. They can be used to maintain volume and dimensional stability while increasing the shelf life of baked
Of the recently recognized non-digestible carbohydrate fibers, chicory root fiber - also known as inulin
- is commonly used in baked goods. Depending on the
supplier and the specific composition, it may appear on
ingredient statements as chicory root fiber (vegetable
fiber), fructooligosaccharide (scFOS), oligosaccharide,
chicory extract, chicory fiber or fructan.
"In baked goods, chicory root fiber acts as a bulking
agent, replacing the bulk left from sugar reduction," said
Bill Gilbert, certified master baker, principal food technologist, Cargill. "We generally recommend replacing
sugar one-to-one with chicory root fiber. While many
bulking agents result in finished products with a crisper
or firmer texture, chicory root fiber more closely mimics
the texture of its full-sugar counterpart."
Nutritional claims are
only one aspect of fiber's
benefits. Others include
texture and flavor.
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www.bakingandsnack.com / August 2018 Baking & Snack 69