Baking & Snack - July 2018 - 76


In cakes, sugar provides
mouthfeel and enables
aeration. Naturally
derived sweeteners and
fibers can work together
to reduce sugar and
create a clean label.

turers must consider how a reduction in sugar could
impact ease of handling and shelf-life stability," she said.
Knowing which of these roles sugar is performing in
a particular dessert is critical. "Bakers need to consider
which ingredients are acceptable for replacement," said
Peggy Dantuma, director, bakery technical sales and services, Kerry Ingredients. "Fibers, both artificial and natural, can be used for bulking agents as well as polyols."
Taste is one side of the coin of sugar reduction; function is the other. There is no one-size-fits-all solution
for addressing all these needs. "This requires taking a
holistic approach to product development to address
functionality without losing sight of taste and sweetness
while also ensuring nutrition targets such as calories or
added sugars are considered," said Mark Floerke, project
lead, bakery and culinary applications, ADM.

Tightening flavor profiles
Consumers won't buy desserts that don't taste good,
and they often equate "reduced sugar" with "tastes
bad." This puts taste as the No. 1 priority when slashing
sugar in dessert formulations.

Sensus America

76 Baking & Snack July 2018 /

"Many functional bulk ingredients have lower sweetness levels compared to sucrose," explained Didem
Icoz, PhD, business scientist, global sweetener R&D,
Ingredion Inc. "To balance out the lost sweetness, highpotency sweeteners (HPS) can be used. Different from
bulk ingredients, HPS are hundreds or even thousands
of times sweeter than sucrose." Many of these HPS are

Taste is one side of the
coin of sugar reduction;
function is the other.
also non-caloric, she said, either because of the miniscule amounts needed in a formulation or their molecular make-up.
These sweeteners can be derived naturally or artificially. Artificial sweeteners include the widely used aspartame, acesulfame-K and sucralose as well as saccharin, cyclamates, alitame and neotame. Natural HPS have
gained a lot of momentum in the clean label movement,
particularly stevia and monk fruit. Stevia is 150 to 300
times sweeter than sugar, and monk fruit is about 200
times sweeter.
Naturally derived HPS come with the downside of bitter off-notes or aftertastes that must be accommodated.
Ingredient suppliers can combat this with customized
sweeteners or masking agents. "For most HPS, there is
a sweetness threshold," Dr. Icoz said. "As the sweetness
level increases, so too do any off-tastes such as any additional sweetness to be perceived."
These off notes can be addressed by focusing on certain steviol glycosides in stevia plants. Reb M and Reb
D have cleaner tastes with less bitterness and aftertaste
than other stevial glycosides like Reb A, Dr. Icoz explained. Ingredion's Bestevia Reb M and Reb D are derived from the stevia plant with a proprietary process
aimed to deliver a high purity level and better sweetness
experience, according to Dr. Icoz.
PureCircle's proprietary stevia leaf variety, Starleaf,
contains more than 20 times the sugar-like steviol glycoside content compared to standard stevia. "This enables
bakers and developers to reach deeper levels of sugar reduction in their baked goods with a plant-based sweetener," said John Martin, senior director of global technical innovation, PureCircle.
Cargill's next-generation stevia line, ViaTech, uses a
proprietary model to predict the right combination of
steviol glycosides to deliver improved sweetness and
flavor dynamics as compared to earlier Reb A stevia
Allulose is another naturally derived sweetener that is

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